How does the process of leaching occur?

Leaching occurs when the air spaces in soil become filled with water and gravity begins to move water downward. The percolating water carries any soluble salts that are present in the soil and is not specific for nitrate.

What is the process of leaching in soil?

In agriculture, leaching refers to the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation. Soil structure, crop planting, type and application rates of fertilizers, and other factors are taken into account to avoid excessive nutrient loss.

What is the leaching method?

Leaching (metallurgy), a widely used extractive metallurgy technique which converts metals into soluble salts in aqueous media. Dump leaching, an industrial process to extract metals from ore taken directly from the mine and stacked on the leach pad without crushing.

Why is leaching a problem?

The Problem of Leaching. Leaching is the movement of contaminants, such as water-soluble pesticides or fertilizers, carried by water downward through permeable soils. Generally speaking, most pesticides adsorb to soil particles (especially clay), become immobile, and do not leach.

How groundwater is recharged?

Groundwater recharge or deep drainage or deep percolation is a hydrologic process where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater. This process usually occurs in the vadose zone below plant roots and is often expressed as a flux to the water table surface.

Why do soils develop different horizons?

The O horizon is thin in some soils, thick in others, and not present at all in others. A -(topsoil) Mostly minerals from parent material with organic matter incorporated. A good material for plants and other organisms to live. C – (parent material) The deposit at Earth’s surface from which the soil developed.

What is nitrate leaching?

Nitrate leaching is a naturally occurring process, it occurs when nitrate leaves the soil in drainage water. Nitrate is soluble and mobile. It is no problem when it is within the root-zone, but once it gets into the ground water and other fresh water bodies it is an environmental pollutant.
The ideal soil is considered to be a loam, which is a mix of sand, silt and clay. Loams take advantage of the balance of water holding and nutrient availability between the three. Loamy soils with high organic matter are very well suited for high demand crops such as vegetables and fruit.

What is meant by seepage?

Common causes of water seepage : Leakage in the drainage pipes of the upper, adjacent or your own flat. Leakage in the water supply pipes of the upper, adjacent or your own flat. Deteriorated waterproofing of floor slabs or bath-tub seals. Seepage of waste water or rain water through roof / external wall.

What is the cation exchange capacity?

Cation exchange capacity (CEC) is the total capacity of a soil to hold exchangeable cations. CEC is an inherent soil characteristic and is difficult to alter significantly. It influences the soil’s ability to hold onto essential nutrients and provides a buffer against soil acidification.

What is the ion exchange process?

Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex. In most cases the term is used to denote the processes of purification, separation, and decontamination of aqueous and other ion-containing solutions with solid polymeric or mineralic “ion exchangers“.

Is Sand positively charged?

Soils are composed of a mixture of sand, silt, clay and organic matter. Both the clay and organic matter particles have a net negative charge. Thus, these negativelycharged soil particles will attract and hold positivelycharged particles, much like the opposite poles of a magnet attract each other.

What is PH dependent charge?

Variable charges or pHdependent charges depend on the pH of the solution. They result mainly through protonation (release of protons) or deprotonation of H+ from hydroxyl-groups (OH) at the edges or surface of inorganic and organic colloids: the edges of 1:1 layer silicate clays (kaolinite)
The effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) is defined as the total amount of exchangeable cations, which are mostly sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium (hereafter collectively termed as bases) in non-acidic soils and bases plus aluminum in acidic soils.

What can cause soil to become acidic or basic?

Causes of soil acidity. Soil acidification is a natural process accelerated by agriculture. Soil acidifies because the concentration of hydrogen ions in the soil increases. The main cause of soil acidification is inefficient use of nitrogen, followed by the export of alkalinity in produce.

What is a cation exchange?

Definition of cation exchange. : ion exchange in which one cation (as sodium or hydrogen) is substituted for one or more other cations (as calcium and magnesium in hard water) — called also base exchange.

How does a cation exchanger work?

This is what allows ion exchange to take place. As positively charged cations flow across cation resin beads, the cations are exchanged for hydrogen (H+). Likewise, as negatively charged anions flow across anion resin beads, the anions are exchanged for hydroxyl (OH–).
cation. [kăt′ī′?n] An ion with net positive charge, having more protons than electrons. In electrolysis, cations migrate to a negatively charged cathode. Compare anion.

What is an example of a cation?

Ionic compounds are made of a cation and a negatively charged ion, known as an anion. Ionic compounds are abundant in our world. The table salt you might use is an ionic compound and is officially called sodium chloride. In this compound, a sodium cation is bonded to a chlorine anion.

Do cations gain or lose electrons?

Ions are formed when atoms lose or gain electrons in order to fulfill the octet rule and have full outer valence electron shells. When they lose electrons, they become positively charged and are named cations. When they gain electrons, they are negatively charged and are named anions.

How many electrons will carbon gain or loss in forming an ion?

Calcium-loses 2, Fluorine-gains 1, Aluminum-loses 3, Oxygen-gains 2. How many electrons will each of these elements gain or lose in forming an ion: calcium, fluorine, aluminum, and oxygen? +1. Identify the charge of the ion formed when a potassium atom loses one electron.
Ionic bond. Ionic bond, also called electrovalent bond, type of linkage formed from the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions in a chemical compound. The atom that loses the electrons becomes a positively charged ion (cation), while the one that gains them becomes a negatively charged ion (anion).