What is the effector of the plantar reflex?

Reflex Tested Response Observed Effector Muscle Involved
Biceps Flexion of forearm at elbow joint or slight biceps twitch Biceps brachii
Triceps Extension of forearm at elbow joint or slight triceps twitch Triceps brachii
Plantar Plantar flexion of the foot and flexion of toes Gastrocnemius, soleus, and flexor digitorum longus

Similarly one may ask, what is an example of a somatic reflex?

The somatic nervous system is the system that helps the body adjust to the external environment through the voluntary movement of the skeletal system. Some examples of the somatic nervous system include: the blinking reflex, knee jerk reflex, gag reflex, and the startle reflex and rooting reflex in infants.

Which is a somatic reflex?

A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex. In vertebrates, most sensory neurons do not pass directly into the brain, but synapse in the spinal cord. There are two types: autonomic reflex arc (affecting inner organs) and somatic reflex arc (affecting muscles).

What is the difference between a somatic and autonomic reflex?

The autonomic nervous system regulates organ systems through circuits that resemble the reflexes described in the somatic nervous system. The main difference between the somatic and autonomic systems is in what target tissues are effectors. Somatic responses are solely based on skeletal muscle contraction.

What is the body’s response to the ankle jerk reflex?

The ankle jerk reflex, also known as the Achilles reflex, occurs when the Achilles tendon is tapped while the foot is dorsi-flexed. A positive result would be the jerking of the foot towards its plantar surface. Being a deep tendon reflex, it is monosynaptic. It is also a stretch reflex.

What is the effector of the patellar reflex?

The quadriceps femoris is the effector muscle of the patellar reflex. The dorsal roots of spinal nerves contain the axons of the motor neurons. The normal patellar reflex response involves extension of the leg at the knee joint.

Are somatic reflexes contractions of smooth muscle?

If the motor response is contraction of skeletal muscle, the reflex is a ___ ___. can be skeletal muscle (somatic reflex), cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, or glands (autonomic reflexes). A reflex is the response of the effector to stimulation by the motor neuron of the reflex arc.

What is the effector muscle of the knee jerk reflex?

A monosynaptic reflex extension of the leg resulting from a sharp tap on the patellar tendon. It helps maintain and upright position. It’s effector muscles are located in the quadriceps femoris. It’s connected to the withdrawal reflex.

What does all reflexes have in common?

Reflexes are set motor responses to specific sensory stimuli. All reflexes share three classical characteristics: they have a sensory inflow pathway, a central relay site, and a motor outflow pathway. Together, these three elements make up the reflex arc.
The triceps reflex, a deep tendon reflex, is a reflex as it elicits involuntary contraction of the triceps brachii muscle. It is initiated by the Cervical (of the neck region) spinal nerve 7 nerve root (the small segment of the nerve that emerges from the spinal cord).
A motor neuron carries the message from the central nervous system to the effector. In a kneejerk reflex arc the sensory neuron directly connects to the motor neuron in the spinal cord. This is called a simple reflex arc. from the spindle (receptor) to where it connects with the motor neuron in the spinal cord.
When the surrounding light intensity is high, the pupil constricts (becomes smaller) to prevent excess light from entering so that the retina is not damaged. Reflex arc involved in the pupil reflex: Stimulus : Change in light intensity. Receptor : Photoreceptors in the retina.

What muscle is involved in the patellar reflex?

Striking the patellar tendon with a reflex hammer just below the patella stretches the muscle spindle in the quadriceps muscle. This produces a signal which travels back to the spinal cord and synapses (without interneurons) at the level of L3 in the spinal cord, completely independent of higher centres.
There are two types of reflex arcs:the autonomic reflex arc, affecting inner organs, and the somatic reflex arc, affecting muscles. When a reflex arc consists of only two neurons, one sensory neuron, and one motor neuron, it is defined as monosynaptic.

What is a normal reflex?

Deep tendon reflexes are normal if they are 1+, 2+, or 3+ unless they are asymmetric or there is a dramatic difference between the arms and the legs. Reflexes rated as 0, 4+, or 5+ are usually considered abnormal.

What is Babinski’s sign and what does it indicate?

Reflexes are responses that occur when the body receives a certain stimulus. The Babinski reflex occurs after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked. The big toe then moves upward or toward the top surface of the foot. The other toes fan out.

What is a clonus reflex?

Clonus (from the Greek for “violent, confused motion”) is a series of involuntary, rhythmic, muscular contractions and relaxations. Unlike small, spontaneous twitches known as fasciculations (usually caused by lower motor neuron pathology), clonus causes large motions that are usually initiated by a reflex.

Why do people get clonus?

When found on its own, clonus is usually caused by lesions that have formed on motor neaurons connected to the muscle. However, other conditions related to the central nervous system like multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, Huntington disease, brain and spinal cord injuries, and stroke may also result in clonus.

What is a positive Hoffman sign?

Little information exists about the ability of the Hoffmann sign to predict cervical spinal cord compression. Hoffmann sign was elicited by flicking the nail of the middle finger. Any flexion of the ipsilateral thumb and/or index finger was considered positive.

What is Chaddock’s sign?

The Chaddock reflex is a diagnostic reflex similar to the Babinski reflex. Chaddock’s sign is present when stroking of the lateral malleolus causes extension of the great toe, indicating damage to the corticospinal tract. It was identified by Charles Gilbert Chaddock in 1911.

Can Hoffman’s sign be normal?

However the two reflexes are quite different, and should not be equated with each other. A positive Babinski sign is considered a pathological sign of upper motor neuron disease except for infants, in whom it is normal. Whereas, a positive Hoffmann’s sign can be present in an entirely normal patient.

What is a negative Hoffman’s sign?

Hoffmann’s sign, which is elicited by flicking the distal phalanx of the long finger. A negative response, as shown here, is no motion of the thumb. A posi
tive response is flexion of the thumb at the interphalangeal joint.

What does a Hyperreflexia mean?

Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a condition in which your involuntary nervous system overreacts to external or bodily stimuli. It’s also known as autonomic hyperreflexia. This reaction causes: a dangerous spike in blood pressure. constriction of your peripheral blood vessels.